India can be divided into six physio-graphic regions. 

  1. The Northern Mountains  (The North and North-eastern Mountains)
  2. The Peninsular Plateau
  3. Indo Gangetic Plains
  4. Indian Deserts
  5. The Coastal Plains (East & West)
  6. Island

1)  The Northern Mountains (The North and North-eastern Mountains)

  1. The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel mountain ranges.
  2. The general orientation of these ranges isfrom northwest to the southeast direction in the north-western part of India
  3. Himalayas in the Darjeeling and Sikkim regions lie in an east west direction
  4. While in Arunachal Pradesh they are from southwest to the northwest direction
  5. In Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, they are in the north south direction
  6. The approximate length of the Great Himalayan range, also known as the central axial range, is 2,500 km from east to west
  7. Their width varies between 160-400 km from north to south.
  8. Himalayas are not only the physical barrier; they are also a climatic, drainage and cultural divide.

 On the basis of relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphologic features the Himalayas can be divided into the following sub-divisions

  • Kashmir or North-western Himalayas
  • Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  • Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  • Arunachal Himalayas
  • Eastern Hills and Mountains

(i)Kashmir or North-western Himalayas  Comprise a series of ranges such as

  1. Karakoram
  2. Ladakh
  3. Zaskar
  4. Pir Panjal
  1. The north-eastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is a cold desert, which lies between theGreater Himalayas and the Karakoram ranges
  2. Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range, lies the world famousvalley of Kashmir and the famous Dal Lake.
  3. The Kashmir Himalayas are also famous forKarewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran, a local variety of saffron.
  4. This region is drained by the river Indus, and its tributaries such as the Jhelum and the Chenab.
  5. The Kashmir and north-western Himalayas are well-known for their scenic beauty and picturesque landscape
  6. Famous places of pilgrimage such as Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar -e-Sharif, etc. are also located here and large number of pilgrims visit these places every year
  7. Srinagar, capital city of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum River.
  8. Srinagar, capital city of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum River.
  9. An Interesting Fact
  10. In Kashmir Valley, the meanders in Jhelum River are caused by the local base level provided by the erstwhile larger lake of which the present Dal Lake is a small part.
  11. The Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  12. This part lies approximately between the Ravi in the west and the Kali (a tributary of Ghaghara) in the east
  13. It is drained by two major river systems of India, i.e. the Indus and the Ganga.
  14. Tributaries of the Indus include the river Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj
  15. The tributaries of Ganga flowing through this region include the Yamuna and the Ghaghara.
  16. The northernmost part of the Himachal Himalayas is an extension of the Ladakh cold

Some Important facts of this region

  1. Karewas
  2. Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.

 Important passes of the region are

  1. Zoji La on the Great Himalayas
  2. Banihal on the Pir Panjal
  3. Photu La on the Zaskar
  4. Khardung La on the Ladakh range.

Important fresh lakes

  1. Dal
  2. Wular

Salt water lakes such as

  1. Pangong Tso
  2. Tso Moriri

‘Valley of flowers’

  1. The famous ‘Valley of flowers’ is also situated in this region.
  2. The places of pilgrimagesuch as the Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath and Hemkund Sahib are also situated in this part.
  3. The region is also known to have five famous Prayags (river confluences)

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